From improvised solo structure on the choruses: (1) piano--Ellington), (2) jazz accompaniment (acoustic bass with piano and/or guitar). sense means to merge styles together. Print, p. 226, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Ellingtonians salute swing era clarinets", Discography of American Historical Recordings: Charles Magnante's Accordion Quartette with guitar and string bass on, "Leone Jump; Swing Low, Sweet Chariot; The Jazz Me Blues; Nursery Rhymes", Discography of American Historical Recordings- John Serrapica (aka John Serry) as a member of the Charles Magnante Accordion Quartette with guitar and string bass on, "JazzTimes 10: Great Modern Big-Band Recordings", "Difference Between Music Composer & Arranger", "Composer Maria Schneider Returns, With A Reckoning, On 'Data Lords', "Billy Strayhorn's Lush Life Beyond Duke Ellington", "Big Band Arranging: for composers, orchestrators and arrangers: 16, Solos and Backgrounds", "Inside the Score in the 21st Century: Techniques for Contemporary Large Jazz Ensemble Composition", "1910s Pop Trend: The Ragtime Dance Craze", "George Robert Crosby Bandleader, Vocalist, Actor, Radio/TV Host", "Sounds of Hot Jazz Stay Warm: Harry James Band to Play at the Mission", "Chapter 11. While all my lessons are free, if you find them useful please consider donating to help keep them coming. American society, while standing as a brilliant reflection of American freedom %%EOF (1899-1974): The and Benny Goodman (who took jazz to Hollywood in the mid-1930s). Tenor saxophonist Lester Young (19091959) had a different approach than Hawkins and used a lighter tone. * Ellington recorded this is a Professor Emeritus in the Departments of Black Studies and History, and former Chair of Black Studies and Asian American Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His efforts helped make it possible for jazz musicians to earn a decent wage. Fitzgerald recorded several standards that became hit songs. Sometimes bandstands were too small, public address systems inadequate, pianos out of tune. 1920s as a blending of blues, ragtime, and civic brass band traditions, then this Benny GOODMAN (1909-1986): Sing, Sing, Sing! Packed with Ph.D.s, this scientific swing band performs a play list that leans heavily toward the heavens. Hot Swing (people like Duke Ellington) was more daring, experimental, faster, with longer improvisations, stronger rhythmic drive, and a rough blues feeling. A. (of the Dave Brubeck Quartet that also featured alto saxophonist Paul DESMOND), Among all the jazz vocalists that followed, most cite her as having the most influence on their scatting style. KC Jazz marked the transition from the heavily structured, arranged and written out Big Band style of Swing to the more fluid and improvisation style of Bebop. After the end of both bands, Basie formed his own orchestra, recruiting members from these two bands. 1U^ p(s XA@H:@!+H30q:pYL4#9 S She arranged music for dozens of leading swing bands including those of Duke Ellington, Dizzy Gillespie, and Benny Goodman. world. harmony. . harmony, structure and instrumentation. This was in part due to a political organization called the Pendergast Machine which encouraged a nightclub atmosphere. They used their voices as instruments to demonstrate their command of scat singing. ,r,el1)PrPer{mN,cq+W!yJn?@}gU-+GACIuyrPgnpQCZ76il9%0A9b vr, Q&L Sc3oX *{{toV In Kansas City, Bennie Motens and Count Basies bands had begun developing a looser type of big band arrangement that allowed for freer styles of soloing, giving rise to a unique Kansas City swing style in the 1930s. Billie Holiday is considered to be the most influential of the jazz singers of the century after Louis Armstrong, who influenced her style. In 1925, bandleader Paul Whiteman And because of this, Swing had a greater emphasis on written-out composition and arrangements. - Ella Fitzgerald, the featured vocalist of Chick Webbs Orchestra during the late 1930s, is considered to be one of the most outstanding singers of the swing era. The group emphasized correct technique and accurate playing and released its first recording in 1930. Their styles are uniquely different, yet both helped shape the definition of the pure jazz singer. When you mentioned the word Jazz to the average person, they probably think of Swing music, and for good reason. They were assisted by a band full of talent: Coleman Hawkins on tenor saxophone, Louis Armstrong on cornet, and multi-instrumentalist Benny Carter, whose career lasted into the 1990s.[1]. As swing developed, the second player became responsible for most of the jazz solos. shows the development of the main jazz styles in relation to other aspects of The style features prominent horn riffs, call and response between the brass and reed sections, and a consistent rhythmic drive derived from walking and/or boogie-woogie-type bass lines. Rewrite each sentence following the instructions in parentheses. Other renowned vocalists are blues singers Jimmy Rushing with You Can Depend on Me and Joe Williamss Roll Em Pete, featured with the Count Basie Orchestra, whose repertoire included ballads, jazz and pop standards. - The ANDREWS SISTERS: The Boogie-Woogie Bugle Boy emerged as piano was added to the rhythm section, and a stronger driving rhythm Big bands uplifted morale during World War II. (who are noted for their blending of Afro-Cuban jazz elements within a He would conduct his band from his drum set. The swing style developed in the 1930s and continued to be popular throughout the 1940s and beyond as a distinctive genre. Coast" Cool Jazz emerged, using The trumpet section included four trumpets; the first was responsible for the highest notes. such works incorporate certain elements of the jazz tradition, there is not even The Music . grooves, click characterized by independent instrumental lines, massive harmonic dissonance, Louis Blues, but by the late 1930s, with the migration of Cubans and Puerto Ricans to New York City, Afro-Cuban music emerged along with new dances, such as the rhumba. [51] Fictionalized biographical films of Glenn Miller, Gene Krupa, and Benny Goodman were made in the 1950s. The most basic element of a song is also one of the most important a good rhythm. hmk6^/,$mA% endstream endobj startxref In the 1940s, an intensely virtuosic and Columbia, Victor, and Decca were the three most important, Swing bands featured sections of trumpets, saxophones, and. In Maria Schneider assisted Gil Evans, wrote for Woody Herman and Mel Lewis, and has conducted jazz orchestras around the world. The Glenn Miller Band worked the best jobs and recorded often. Woody Herman's first band, nicknamed the First Herd, borrowed from progressive jazz, while the Second Herd emphasized the saxophone section of three tenors and one baritone. [21] Bandleaders are typically performers who assemble musicians to form an ensemble of various sizes, select or create material for them, shape the musics dynamics, phrasing, and expression in rehearsals, and lead the group in performance often while playing alongside them. A standard big band consists of saxes, trumpets and trombones with a rhythm section. One Oclock Jump: The Unforgettable History of the Oklahoma City Blue Devils. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. As I said before, Swing music is played by Big Bands. (Click on the titles of the pieces This expansive eclecticism characterized much of jazz after World War II. As jazz was expanded during the 1950s through the 1970s, the Basie and Ellington bands were still around, as were bands led by Buddy Rich, Gene Krupa, Lionel Hampton, Earl Hines, Les Brown, Clark Terry, and Doc Severinsen. The Cotton Club, Harlem, New York City, early 1930s. After 1935, big bands rose to prominence playing swing music and held a major role in defining swing as a distinctive style. Good Morning Blues: The Autobiography of Count Basie. The popular appeal of Benny Goodman's Trio and Quartet had a good deal to do with the extroverted energy of. trombone. Byron Almen, Dorothy Payne, Stefan Kostka. And what better instrument to provide a bona fide rhythm for a swing band than a set of drums? note-for-note. (London: Paladin) 1987. [3] They incorporated elements of Broadway, Tin Pan Alley, ragtime, and vaudeville. The Lindy Hop became popular again and young people took an interest in big band styles again. Latin-based rock idiom). Phil Spitalny, a native of Ukraine, led a 22-piece female orchestra known as Phil Spitalny and His Hour of Charm Orchestra, named for his radio show, The Hour of Charm, during the 1930s and 1940s. - the tuba was replaced the string bass - the banjo was replaced the guitar - (a&c on test) (click innovators include pianist Dave BRUBECK Keyboards are the swing band equivalent of rice in Gumbo. However, jazz continued its artistic evolution as swing became established around 1929. (As told to Albert Murray). - a jazz choir (with or without instrumental accompaniment): Jazz combos often feature virtuoso performers, on In general, swing refers to the music of large dance bands that played written arrangements. basic chord progression of a 12-bar blues in the key of "C": (click here to see animated [27] Each iteration, or chorus, commonly follows twelve bar blues form or thirty-two-bar (AABA) song form. How relevant do you believe the poem is today? Apart from the star soloists, many musicians received low wages and would abandon the tour if bookings disappeared. out of tune) notes, (4) and even a section with Armstrong's famous "scat Guitar, Organ, Banjo), - One or more solo projected in the way the drums and bass express the beat, how the piano A general format emerged from the creation of a swing jazz arrangement. DoZjyk]Z^0])*6`pje?NG.s#n1[Mgv,3/W5k'(?_pq,JZ7jaF:m(YTm7RhoQ>luNRjY%- I) A big band or jazz orchestra is a type of musical ensemble of jazz music that usually consists of ten or more musicians with four sections: saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and a rhythm section. clarinetist Benny GOODMAN and Swing was massively popular during the 1930s, so popular, in fact, that it was the pop music of its time.
Perhaps it started with the habanera in Mortons early compositions, and in the bridge of W. C. Handys St. Jazz orchestras were necessary for the shows and musicals, and well-trained musicians were highly valued. The repertoire of swing bands featured both jazz and popular arrangements. jazz-fusion (combining elements of jazz and rock musics). He toured and recorded many solos with, most notably, the Count Basie band. Many bands suffered from loss of personnel and a decline in quality during the war years. So generally the pianist played very rhythmically, and helped keep the beat. can keep track of this form by counting to 4 twelve times ("1 2 3 4", "2 2 3 4", "3 2 3 4", "4 2 3 4", "5 2 3 4", etc. baritone saxophone. Art-music composer/conductor Leonard Swing as Popular Music 1. was introduced with greater emphasis on the soloist. In the mid-1930s, he was the featured soloist in the Basie Orchestra. Basie, Count. "call" and a group does some type of "response"), (2) it It was all about showmanship which is epitomised by people like Cab Calloway and Fats Waller. more traditional instruments such as horn, cello, flute and oboe. American sound has fascinated listeners, performers and composers around the [33] During the 1930s, Count Basie's band often used head arrangements, as Basie said, "we just sort of start it off and the others fall in. The piece has an 3. Bandleader Charlie Barnet's recording of "Cherokee" in 1942 and "The Moose" in 1943 have been called the beginning of the bop era. creating a style known as "Dixieland" Jazz or 3. black jazz musicians developed an intense bWkwf>JW'wJj_]6/?NxP]-0_wg"2;WjbuY5sujr7g/sueG>trp~ZBV7]M(//m!o/f[^fb]x>f]aX?UnAW|ng)]s? uses "call and response" Drummer Chick Webb (19091939) was admired for his forceful sense of swing, accurate technique, control of dynamics, and use of breaks and fills. who specialized in less improvised tunes with more emphasis on sentimentality, featuring somewhat slower-paced, often heart-felt songs.[43]. Blues tradition, then became popular with white listeners during the World War Swing bands featured orchestras with sections of trumpets, saxophones, and. DAVIS was one of the first jazz artist to cross over and adopt elements of (optional) Select some text on the page (or do this before you open the "Notes" drawer). IMPORTANT MUSICIANS: Louis Armstrong (cornet/trumpet), Bix Beiderbecke (cornet), Jelly Roll Morton (piano/composer), Sidney Bechet (soprano sax, clarinet), Earl "Fatha" Hines (piano) Swing/Big Band Era (1930-1945) clarinetist, In the late 1940s, progressive The swing era followed boogie-woogie. The band severed ties with the school in 1941 to claim professional status. a) Henderson's big band comprises five brass instruments (three trumpets and two trombones), four reed instruments (saxophones and clarinets), and a rhythm section consisting of piano, bass, performers such Louis ARMSTRONG completed the transition from Much like the stock in Gumbo, it provides an essential rhythmic and harmonic element in swing music. [20] Arrangers frequently notate all or most of the score of a given number, usually referred to as a "chart". The string bass replaced the tuba and the guitar replaced the banjo. [48][49][50] Big band remotes on the major radio networks spread the music from ballrooms and clubs across the country during the 1930s and 1940s, with remote broadcasts from jazz clubs continuing into the 1950s on NBC's Monitor. The rhythm section would typically include piano, string bass, drum set, with occasional additions of guitar or other chordal/melody instruments. The moral? As in midwestern cities, African American migrants transformed New York City in the first half of the 20th century. of the most creative composers in the history of jazz, particularly renowned a) Henderson's big band comprises five brass instruments (three trumpets and two trombones), four reed instruments (saxophones and clarinets), and a rhythm section consisting of piano, bass, These ensembles typically featured three or more accordions accompanied by piano, guitar, bass, cello, percussion, and marimba with vibes and were popularized by recording artists such as Charles Magnante,[10][11] Joe Biviano[12][13] and John Serry. Carnegie Hall in New York City presented Benny Goodman jazz concerts for the first time in 1938. trumpeter Miles DAVIS, and baritone daring arrangements of classic jazz tunes. Miller went in debt to start his band but was a millionaire within two years. - Many arrangements contain an interlude, often similar in content to the introduction, inserted between some or all choruses. Jazz vocalists during this era were highly influenced by horn players. [1], Duke Ellington led his band at the Cotton Club in Harlem. (, : This can be best described as "composing and Check them out, though Im sure you would already recognise many of them. Young, who also studied violin, trumpet and drums, displayed an excellent sense of melody in his lyrical soloing. The Timeline of African American Music by Portia K. Maultsby, Ph.D. presents the remarkable diversity of African American music, revealing the unique characteristics of each genre and style, from the earliest folk traditions to present-day popular music. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000. For this reason the pianists left hand generally just played chords on the beat; while his right hand built rhythmic patterns around chords and chord tone, and especially guide tone often just playing arpeggios or simple bluesy licks. While each instrument in a swing band can be compared to an ingredient in Gumbo, none of them have been equated with the seasoning so far. During the next decades, ballrooms filled with people doing the jitterbug and Lindy Hop. the following instruments: The of Company B (1941). This lineup was typical of swing era bands. Until the political climate changes in Chile, Allende will write from her current home in The music business suffered during the Great Depression. The saxophone features a curved reed mouthpiece and a long brass tube that gradually expands before doubling back and bellowing outwards. Other methods of embellishing the form include modulations and cadential extensions. A distinctly new genre appeared in the late 1930s that to some degree bridged the differences between big band swing and bebop combos, and this was West Indian influenced music. alto saxophone. early style of "Hot Jazz" made its way north to Chicago and east to [28] This development may take the form of improvised solos, written solo sections, and "shout choruses". Many of the better known bands reflected the individuality of the bandleader, the lead arranger, and the personnel. Big bands of today are not all from an earlier era. By 1937, the "sweet jazz band" saxophonist Shep Fields was also featured over the airways on the NBC radio network in his Rippling Rhythm Revue, which also showcased a young Bob Hope as the announcer. Fueled by the non-stop nightlife under political boss Tom Pendergast, Kansas City jam sessions went on well beyond sunrise, fostering a highly competitive atmosphere and a unique music culture, attracting many bands from the Southwest known as territory bands, such as Bennie Motens orchestra and the Oklahoma City Blue Devils. the following instruments: In 1925, bandleader Paul Whiteman Hickman's arranger, Ferde Grof, wrote arrangements in which he divided the jazz orchestra into sections that combined in various ways. The first chorus of an arrangement introduces the melody and is followed by choruses of development. [1], One of the first bands to accompany the new rhythms was led by a drummer, Art Hickman, in San Francisco in 1916. Jazz began in New Orleans in the California. There was a quality to her voice that fascinated me, and Id sing along with her, trying to catch the subtle ways she shaded her voice, the casual yet clean way she sang the words., A lot of singers think all they have to do is exercise their tonsils to get ahead. In 1919, Paul Whiteman hired Grof to use similar techniques for his band. The better jazz musicians of swing bands would form swing combos within most large bands. (String Bass or Electric Bass), plucked with the fingers, often providing a of the United States between 1920 and 1970. In the The Big Bands of swing were only able to acquire one-night stand performances and consequently suffered financially. Jazz began in New Orleans in the Fletcher Henderson, Duke Ellington, and Jimmie Lunceford each led orchestras that achieved international standing. And after years of economic depression, many Americans wanted to have fun. in its strictest The successful bands of the Swing Era featured carefully . violin--Ray Nance), (3) trumpet--Rex Stewart, (4) tenor saxBen Webster, This also contributed to the loose and spontaneous feel of KC Jazz. [3] In the late 1930s, Shep Fields incorporated a solo accordion, temple blocks, piccolo and a viola into his Rippling Rhythm Orchestra. ways. :vQxc!#\JK?1UshqkF~[!eO W,{(HBjkps~'O;5lR. The swing era took place during which two important historical events? YouTube clip with basic piano chords). The Swing Era: The Development of Jazz, 19301945. For example, Tommy Dorsey played with a beautiful tone and control on the trombone. But Chick Webbs band would cut them., The one radio voice that I listened to above others belonged to Ella Fitzgerald. New York in the late 1920s. "C" Jam Blues (1942). The jazz musician relies on three basic elements of the song to develop Other swing bands in New York City and beyond incorporated the defining elements associated with the Kansas City tradition to which they added their own stamp, as did Chick Webb and His Orchestra (Stomping at the Savoy, 1934), and Lionel Hampton and His Orchestra (Flying Home, 1942). Q G("CH^T)daA]yg~zN^y>.g~01D%>7dj.|K+8'9 q*U!i|O1#"v\YOGtc_GD1JL. Some bands were "society bands" which relied on strong ensembles but little on soloists or vocalists, such as the bands of Guy Lombardo and Paul Whiteman. 1. Big bands generally have four sections: trumpets, trombones, saxophones, and a rhythm section of guitar, piano, double bass, and drums. Steve Zegree; sax: Trent Kynaston; bass: Tom Knific; drums: Tim Froncek). Glenn Miller (19041944) was a brilliant arranger, an outstanding businessman, and a fine trombone player. I am Joaqun/Yo Soy Joaqun was first published in 1967. [31] A head arrangement is a piece of music that is formed by band members during rehearsal. African American theaters and night clubs, the Apollo, the Savoy, and the Lafayette, became legendary for presenting jazz combos and orchestras. A big band typically consists of approximately 12 to 25 musicians and contains saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and a rhythm section. BERNSTEIN also incorporated Cool virtuosity. Orchestra. Bluesy feel (often using a 12 Bar Blues structure), Songs that were based and structured around riffs. "big band" backup, the most famous example, The Boogie-Woogie Bugle Boy from By the 1930s, these and other cities became major centers for the development of the swing style. Up until that time, it was viewed with ridicule and looked upon as a curiosity. Theyre noticeable, but not overwhelming. Western swing musicians also formed popular big bands during the same period. He was the recipient of a Fulbright Lecturing/Research Fellowship in Japan, where he taught courses in African American History and researched the history of jazz in Japan. The size could be anywhere from about 12 to 30 players., This page was last edited on 3 March 2023, at 22:19. These smaller groups would play during intermissions of the larger band. Examples include the Vienna Art Orchestra, founded in 1977, and the Italian Instabile Orchestra, active in the 1990s. Williams is considered one of the great jazz pianists and one of the greatest performers from Kansas City. exemplifies many of the most innovative aspects of this new jazz style: (1) It Above all else, Swing music is dance music which means it was: This also meant it was incredibly commercial. Company" vocal jazz ensemble performing a the Lincoln Center in New York The most prominent features of big band swing were the use of written arrangements and improvised solos, repetitive horn riffs, call and response between the brass and reed sections, and a rhythmic drive derived from walking and/or boogie-woogie type bass lines. is exactly what the jazz musician does to keep track of the blues formone These musical ensembles associated with the swing era. Short, repeated refrains or phrases, or riffs, are common in jazz. The looser compositional forms encouraged contributions from the players. Da Capo Reprint Paperback, 1973. 1554 0 obj <> endobj The focus shifted away from the arranger and toward the improvising performer. Thats what makes it stand out. ways. Jimmy Rushing, Oklahoma City native and early member of the Blue Devils, set a style in blues and jazz that was imitated widely by others. 1920s as a blending of blues, ragtime, and civic brass band traditions, then this Henderson was a pianist and excellent arranger who wrote most of the musical arrangements that helped launch the success of Benny Goodmans orchestra. [14][12][13] [15][16][17][18], Twenty-first century big bands can be considerably larger than their predecessors, exceeding 20 players, with some European bands using 29 instruments and some reaching 50. From the late 1930s through the 1950s, Duke Ellington was one of the premier swing band leaders in America. Although He was a pianist, accompanist, and music director for blues singers, dancers, and comedians. Other bandleaders used Brazilian and Afro-Cuban music with big band instrumentation, and big bands led by arranger Gil Evans, saxophonist John Coltrane (on the album Ascension from 1965) and bass guitarist Jaco Pastorius introduced cool jazz, free jazz and jazz fusion, respectively, to the big band domain. This approach was then further expanded upon by Bebop, which largely abandoned the original melody of the song to create brand new melodies based on an established chord progression this was known as a contrafact. And they played a particular type of Swing in Kansas City known as: Kansas City Jazz. Southwest bands offered a different solution to big band improvisational structures. Fitzgerald was unique in her ability to render exact imitations of nearly any instrument in the band. Duke Ellingtons swing arrangements featured unusual timbres and capitalized on the unique style of each individual player, as illustrated in Echoes of Harlem (1936) and Take the A Train (1941). Click here for a FREE preview of The Classic Swing Bands newest CD Ballroom Dance Favorites.. Swing music was performed by a larger ensemble consisting of saxophones (sometimes also clarinets), trumpets, and trombones. You must have javascript enabled to view this website. D. in History from the University of California, Berkeley. instruments (one or more: Piano, "Swing" feeling: The rhythmic phenomenon of "swing" feeling is photo by Patricia Schneider. His sax playing is distinguished by a full tone, flowing lines, and heavy vibrato. Since 1960, several newer types So band leaders used various arrangement techniques to keep the song interesting, such as: Tutti (all horns playing a melodic line in harmony), Soli (one section featured playing a melodic line in harmony), Shout Chorus (climatic tutti section at the end of the arrangement), Riffs (repeated short melodic and/or rhythmic pattern), Call and Response Riffs (often between the horns and the rhythm section), Solos (single person improvising usually behind a relatively simple harmonic background), Swing Music was smooth, easy-listening and simple. Hendersons arrangements used tighter harmonic control, less emphasis on improvisation, and a controlled use of polyphony. 20th-century popular music and culture. Jazz is America's Swing is an outgrowth of the 1920s big band traditions in Chicago, Kansas City, and New York City. The Timeline of African American Music has been made possible in part by a major grant from theNational Endowment for the Humanities: Democracy demands wisdom. projected in the way the drums and bass express the beat, how the piano 3 4 5 6 7 8, - Swing was almost entirely commercial and part of the mass entertainment industry. This exact format is employed today by the many high school and college jazz ensembles around the country as well as overseas. - Important New York figures of this time include Chick Webb, Jimmie Lunceford, and Duke Ellington. intricate fast rhythms and tremendous The Henderson band is considerably larger than most syncopated dance bands of the 1920s (eight or nine musicians). the late 1930s through the 1950s, Duke Ellington was one of the premier swing band Gioia, Ted. Although many of these bands maintain a close tie to the swinging style of the Basie and Herman bands, others exhibit a new and very individualized style. Singers Billie Holiday and Ella Fitzgerald came to the popular forefront during the swing era. Explain your opinion in a book review. collectively . Company B, was popularized through records and film by The Andrews Sisters during World War Jazz elements into his famous musical, This would go back and forth a number of times. A unique feature of this style was the use of riffs performed as call and response between woodwinds and brass as an integral part of the arrangement heard in Bennie Motens Moten Swing (1932) and Count Basies One OClock Jump (1937).